- Abstract The thermodynamic properties of liquid bismuth have been explored from the melting point to 1100 C by high-resolution measurements of the density, the heat capacity and the static structure factor. These physical properties display a number of anomalies. In particular, we have observed evidence for the presence of a temperature-driven liquid-liquid structural transformation that takes place at ambient pressure. The latter is characterized by a density discontinuity that occurs at 740 C. Differential thermal analysis measurements revealed the endothermal nature of this transformation. A rearrangement of liquid bismuth structure was found by neutron diffraction measurements, supporting the existence of a liquid-liquid transformation far above the liquidus.