- Postpartum depression (PPD) is a disease which incorporates a variety of depressive states differing in nature and severity. To assist in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, we aimed to ascertain a molecular mechanism underlying PPD development. We applied microarray technology to characterize gene expression of euthymic women with a history of PPD and compared the results with healthy controls. Our study demonstrated that women who considered euthymic on a clinical level, in fact, had an altered molecular profile when compared to participants with no PPD history. We identified nine genes significantly distinguished expression in post- depressive women; they may serve as a diagnostic tool for the detection of a predisposition to PPD. Our findings contribute significantly to the understanding of PPD etiology and its pathogenesis, offer a plausible explanation for the risk of the PPD recurrence, and may also contribute to clinical treatment.