- An association between prenatal exposure to (semi-)metals and of neonatal morbidity was assessed by introducing an oxidative stress as a possible intermediate step. An oxidative stress was measured by cell proliferation (CP) ratio in umbilical cord blood cells. Urine samples of 18 out of 58 enrolled women (31%) were positive for (semi-)metals; 25.9% of women were positive for aluminum (Al). The CP ratio was higher (1) in subjects with Al, (2) in mothers to newborns diagnosed as small-for-gestational age (p value = .052), (3) neonates that weighed less (p value = .079), and (4) in women who experienced repeated abortions (p value = .049). Our findings suggest the possibility of metal-induced oxidative stress.