Iron-Bound Deadeyes from the Nineteenth-Century Akko Tower Wreck, Israel: Metallurgical Investigation of the Manufacturing Technology Academic Article uri icon


  • The Akko Tower Wreck is the remains of a 25-m-long merchant brig, which sank in Akko harbour during the second quarter of the nineteenth century. During underwater excavations, three iron-strapped deadeyes were retrieved from the shipwreck. Metallurgical investigation revealed information related to the manufacturing technologies of the objects. The presence of equiaxed grains combined with elongated inclusions indicates that the strops were made from indirect-smelted wrought iron manufactured by hot-forging and joined by riveting and forge welding. The welding zone of the loop was identified as a plain lap joint, and that of the chain links as a scarf joint. The high concentration of inclusions found on the forge-welding fracture surface may indicate the use of sand as the flux material. The composition, microstructure and manufacturing technology suggest that the deadeyes were manufactured during the second quarter of the nineteenth century, which supports the dating of the ship by other evidence.

publication date

  • January 1, 2017