- Celiac disease is a permanent condition characterized by gluten intolerance, which probably has an autoimmune basis. Previous studies seeking an association between this condition and pregnancy outcomes have given mixed results. The present trial was a retrospective population-based study comparing women with and those without celiac disease who delivered infants in the years 1988–2002. During this period there were 48 deliveries of women having celiac disease and 143,663 control pregnancies. Just over 10% of the affected women had two deliveries during the years under review. The celiac disease and control groups did not differ significantly with regard to birth order, maternal age, gestational age, birth weight, or infant gender. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was more frequent in women with celiac disease, but there were no recurrent abortions and none of the affected women had received fertility treatment. Labor was induced more often in the study group, but there were no significant group differences in low Apgar scores, congenital malformations, or perinatal mortality. When multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out to control for maternal age and gestational age, a nearly significant association was apparent between celiac disease and IUGR. These findings suggest that adverse pregnancy outcomes are not associated with diagnosed celiac sprue. The risk of IUGR may, however, be increased in parturients having this condition. Those affected should continue eating a gluten-free diet throughout pregnancy.