- Even among vaccinated cohorts, prevention and control of mumps outbreaks remain a challenge, owing to sub-optimal population immunity. This is especially true in confined settings, where a single case could be the index for an imminent outbreak. Efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis has not been demonstrated, while early identification of mumps and comprehensive vaccination of populations in confined settings during outbreaks may enable containment of mumps and disrupt further spread. However, we are not aware of official international guidelines concerning vaccination of exposed individuals during an outbreak, especially in a confined setting. In this article we present our experience with mumps containment during outbreaks through vaccination campaigns in the Israeli civilian and military populations and discuss lessons for containment efforts in other settings. Our analysis shows that a comprehensive ring vaccination should be considered in any case of mumps in confined settings.