- Horizons of ultramafic lenses were metamorphosed with host felsic gneisses at upper amphibolite facies conditions during the M2 event on the island of Naxos, Greece. The synkinematic peak M2 Ol–Opx–Hbl–Chl–Spl assemblage of the Main, migmatite-associated, Ultramafic Horizon (MUH) retains mantle-like chemical and oxygen isotope compositions and thus shows no evidence of infiltration of fluids from the host rocks. A bimodal distribution of temperatures, grouped at 700 and 1,200 °C, is given by oxygen isotope Opx–Ol thermometry in the MUH meta-peridotites and indicates partial oxygen exchange during M2 superposed over previous mantle fractionation. The Agia Ultramafic Horizon (AUH), a coarser-grained and unfoliated peridotite, occurs within sillimanite gneisses in northwest Naxos and contains talc–enstatite and olivine domains. Recrystallization of the AUH peridotite during post-peak M2 infiltration of silica-rich, high δ18O fluids is indicated by lack of deformation, increased activity of silica required to stabilize the talc–enstatite assemblage, extremely high δ18O values of Ol and Opx and Δ18O(Opx–Ol) temperatures of 520–650 °C. The source for these fluids is inferred to be aplitic and pegmatitic dikes emanating from the migmatitic core of Naxos and intruding the AUH. At peak M2 temperatures and during anatexis of gneisses, volumes of fluid were small and fluid composition was locally buffered in the deeper part of the Naxos section. Crystallization of melts within the migmatitic core released siliceous fluids and initiated an episode of retrograde hydrous metamorphism in the overlying sequences, as observed in the AUH.