- The relatively low pregnancy rates (PR) after treatment of patients with oligoteratoasthenozoospermia (OTA) result in a search for different treatment modalities. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of transcervical intrafallopian insemination (IFI) with husband's semen in comparison to intrauterine insemination (IUI) in couples with OTA. A prospective, randomized study included 30 couples with OTA-related infertility (according to WHO criteria). The female patients underwent individually adjusted controlled ovarian stimulation by gonadotropins. Spermatozoa was prepared using the Percoll 70% technique and insemination was performed 36-40 h after human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration. The Tomcat Catheter was used for IUI and the Jansen-Anderson Catheter for IFI to the fallopian tube leading to the ovary that contained more dominant follicles. The couples were divided according to sperm count, into group A (9 couples): < 10 mill ml-1 and group B (21 couples): > 10 mill ml-1. Within the groups the patients were randomly assigned for IUI or IFI treatment. Among group B couples, two pregnancies out of 15 IUI cycles (13.3% PR) and two pregnancies out of 18 IFI cycles (11.1% PR) were achieved. Group A patients completed 7 IUI and 9 IFI treatment cycles with no pregnancies observed. These data did not demonstrate a statistically significant advantage for either technique.