An indirect measure of negative self reference interacts with academic failure to predict continuing depressive symptomatology Academic Article uri icon


  • According to the dual-process theory of cognitive vulnerability to depression, two types of measures assess processes which influence individuals’ depressive responses to stress. Automatic associative processes are evaluated using implicit measures to predict individuals’ initial depressive reaction to stressful situations. Effortful reflective processes are evaluated using explicit self report measures to predict continuing depressive responses. The present study extends this view by examining for the first time, the predictive validity of the dual process stress–diathesis model of depression using two indirect performance based measures. Results showed that reflective Negativity Aversion that examines implicit difficulties in maintaining active negative self reference, but not associative Implicit Association Test, predicted longitudinally future continuing depressive responses among individuals who failed to meet their academic expectations.

publication date

  • October 1, 2010