- Amoebic gill disease (AGD) of maricultured salmonids, turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), and sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo (Cetti), caused by Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis has been reported from Australia (Tasmania), Ireland, France, Chile, North America (Washington State and California) and Spain. Of the salmonids, Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., appears to be the most susceptible with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), also suffering significant disease. Only minor outbreaks have been reported in coho, O. kisutch (Walbaum), and chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha (Walbaum). The disease now accounts for 10–20% of production costs of Atlantic salmon in Tasmania and has lead to temporary abandonment of culture of this species in parts of Spain. It is of lesser, but still significant, importance in other countries. Much is known about the pathology of AGD but the pathophysiology of the disease is poorly understood. There is evidence that non-specific immunity is involved in fish acquiring resistance to AGD, but no unequivocal evidence exists for protection as a result of specific immune responses. To date, for salmonids, the only effective treatment for AGD is a freshwater bath. Control procedures based on modification of management strategies have been minimal and virtually unresearched.