Cytokines in the testis, human sperm cells, and semen Academic Article uri icon


  • Cytokines are a large group of products secreted by cells and tissue that have endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine effects during physiologic and pathophysiologic states. The known roles of some of the cytokines in testicular physiology and in the male reproductive-immune system have been reviewed. Investigators have demonstrated that some of those cytokines are present in the semen. Some of those cytokines, their soluble receptors, or their receptor antagonists may serve as markers or indicators of male genital tract infection.

publication date

  • January 1, 1999