User interface design principles for robotics in agriculture: The case of telerobotic navigation and target selection for spraying Academic Article uri icon


  • Introducing semi-automatic teleoperation of an agricultural robotic system can enable improved performance overcoming the complexity that current autonomous robots face due to the dynamic and unstructured agriculture environment. This requires design of a human-robot interface. A user interface for a vineyard robotic sprayer was implemented including functions. The user interface incorporates several functions; robot navigation, target selection and spraying. Following examination of the user interface several usability limitations were identified. Semi-automatic teleoperation implies that the user is not collocated with the robot, and therefore, when designing a user interface several principles must be considered aiming to improve the usability of user interface. In the case of an interface for semi-automatic teleoperation in agricultural robotics, such principles include: visibility, safety, simplicity, feedback, extensibility, and cognitive load reduction. The contribution of this paper is to specify the design guidelines of a user interface for a human-robot cooperative, agricultural robot, in the case of vineyard spraying. Future work will include other interaction styles such as post-WIMP interfaces, within the framework of the AgriRobot project. This research also proposes a methodology to evaluate the usability of the user interface and to examine the human factors (e.g., user awareness, user centered design, interaction styles, learnability) and human-robot interaction parameters (e.g., level of autonomy, interaction roles).

publication date

  • January 1, 2012