- Background: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the awareness of prostate cancer among Bedouin men is low or whether the incidence of prostate cancer is truly low among the Bedouin population. Patients and Methods: Total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were measured in 206 men aged ≥50 out of 1,221 male inhabitants of a geographically defined population from the Negev desert surrounding Beer Sheva. Results: The average PSA level was 1.67 ng/ml (range 0.07–22.1). Abnormal PSA levels were present in 13 out of 206 subjects. Only 10 of these agreed to have trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) and biopsy, 3 subjects refused further investigation by digital rectal examination (DRE) and TRUS. The average number of biopsies was 8 (range 6–10). Prostate cancer was not confirmed. The histological diagnosis was benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or chronic inflammation. Conclusion: The Bedouin men from a geographically defined population from the Negev desert surrounding Beer Sheva have low PSA serum concentration. The incidence rate of prostate cancer is very low and screening is unjustified in the asymptomatic Bedouin population.