- Phospholipase A2(s) (PLA2(s)) are a family of enzymes that is present in a variety of mammalian and nonmammalian sources. Phagocytic cells contain cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) as well as several types of secreted PLA2, all of which have the potential to produce proinflammatory lipid mediators. The role of the predominant form of cPLA2 present in neutrophils is cPLA2alpha was studied by many groups. By modulating its expression in a variety of phagocytes it was found that it plays a major role in formation of eicosanoids. In addition, it was reported that cPLA2alpha also regulates the NADPH oxidase activation. The specificity of its effect on the NADPH oxidase is evident by results demonstrating that the differentiation process as well as other phagocytic functions are normal in cPLA2alpha-deficient PLB cell model. The novel dual subcellular localization of cPLA2alpha in different compartments, in the plasma membranes and in the nucleus, provides a molecular mechanism for the participation of cPLA2alpha in different processes (stimulation of NADPH oxidase and formation of eicosanoids) in the same cells.