- We examined the associations between 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of eight lipid metabolism genes and lipid levels in a Chinese population. This study was conducted as part of a population-based study in China with 799 randomly selected healthy residents who provided fasting blood and an in-person interview. Associations between variants and mean lipid levels were examined using a test of trend and least squares mean test in a general linear model. Four SNPs were associated with lipid levels: LDLR rs1003723 was associated with total cholesterol (P-trend = 0.002) and LDL (P-trend = 0.01), LDLR rs6413503 was associated with total cholesterol (P-trend = 0.05), APOB rs1367117 was associated with apoB (P-trend = 0.02), and ABCB11 rs49550 was associated with total cholesterol (P-trend = 0.01), triglycerides (P-trend = 0.01), and apoA (P-trend = 0.01). We found statistically significant effects on lipid levels for LDLR rs6413503 among those with high dairy intake, LPL rs263 among those with high allium vegetable intake, and APOE rs440446 among those with high red meat intake. We identified new associations between SNPs and lipid levels in Chinese previously found in Caucasians. These findings provide insight into the role of lipid metabolism genes, as well as the mechanisms by which these genes may be linked with disease.