- Summary Background: The rise in the standard of living of the Israeli population during recent decades has been accompanied by a significant decline in the prevalence of various viral diseases including hepatitis A (HAV). This trend is not reflected in the seroprevalence of herpes simplex (HSV) infection,which has remained stable during these years. Materials and Methods: The Public Health Branch of the Israel Defense Force (IDF) Medical Corps continuously draws a systematic,representative sample of male and female recruits on their 1st day of service,based on digit combinations of the military identification number. These recruits are asked to give a blood sample and to undergo a short interview. A quantitative determination of anti-HSV-1 and anti-HAV antibodies was performed. Results: In the present study that included 124 male and 98 female 18-year-old army recruits,51.1% of the antiHSV-positive subjects was also positive for anti-HAV, compared to 27% among anti-HSV-negative persons. Rate ratio (RR) for anti-HAV seropositivity between anti-HSV-1positive and negative recruits was 1.86 (95% CI 1.3-2.7). Conclusion: The present study suggests a strong association between the seroprevalence of both viruses.