Author reply Academic Article uri icon


  • Dear Editor: Mandel et al 1 found that being born in summer and education level independently increase the odds of developing myopia. There are several possible explanations for such findings. First of all, education level expressed as years in school in their sample, in which the mean age was 17.3 years, with half a year of standard deviation, might correspond to age, rather than true academic achievement. As age alone is a risk factor for developing myopia, age should have been included in their model as a possible confounding factor. Second, as the potential educational achievement of the subjects is not known, their present educational effort (time spent reading, writing, looking at a computer monitor, etc.) influencing myopia cannot be evaluated. Third, academic effort of children is known to be influenced by the economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS) of their …

publication date

  • January 1, 2008