- Activated microglial cells release various mediators, which cause neuronal cell death and have been implicated in different neurological disorders. The present study demonstrates that an infusion prepared from the plant Pulicaria incisa ( Pi ) inhibits microglial activation and down-regulates levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and of the toxic mediators nitric oxide and glutamate. The infusion was also shown to have antioxidant properties in cell-free assays (e.g., differential pulse voltammetry) and in a cellular assay, in which the infusion attenuated the induced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that Pi infusion is rich in polyphenols, especially chlorogenic acids and ferulic acids, which might be responsible for the observed activities. It is proposed that Pi infusion be further evaluated for use as a functional beverage for the prevention and/or treatment of chronic diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders in which microglial activation and oxidative stress play important roles.