- The effect of persistent measles virus infection on the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens was studied. Mouse neuroblastoma cells C1300, clone NS20Y, were persistently infected with the Edmonston strain of measles virus. The persistently infected cell line, NS20Y/MS, expressed augmented levels of both H-2Kk and H-2Dd MHC class I glycoproteins. Activation of two interferon(IFN)-induced enzymes, known to be part of the IFN system: (2′–5′)oligoadenylate synthetase and double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase, was detected. Measles-virus-infected cells elicited cytotoxic T lymphocytes that recognized and lysed virus-infected and uninfected neuroblastoma cells in an H-2-restricted fashion. Furthermore, immunization of mice with persistently infected cells conferred resistance to tumor growth after challenge with the highly malignant NS20Y cells. The rationale for using measles virus for immunotherapy is that most patients develop lifelong immunity after recovery or vaccination from this infection. Patients developing cancer are likely to have memory cells. A secondary response induced by measles-virus-infected cells may therefore induce an efficient immune response against non-infected tumour cells.