- Objective To assess rotavirus vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) cumulative impact on the pediatric emergency department visits and hospitalization rates in children <2 years of age in southern Israel between April 2006 and March 2014. Study design This prospective, population-based observational study calculated the rates of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), non-RVGE, community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP), nonalveolar lower respiratory tract infection, and all-cause hospital visits. PCV7, PCV13, and rotavirus vaccination programs were implemented in Israel in July 2009, November 2010, and January 2011, respectively. Results From 2006-2009 to 2013-2014, the rates of hospitilizations for RVGE, non-RVGE, CAAP, and nonalveolar lower respiratory tract infection decreased by 78%, 21%, 46%, and 7%, respectively. In outpatients, the respective decreases were 80%, 16%, 67%, and 14%. All-cause outpatient pediatric emergency department visits and hospitalization rates were reduced by 12% and 11%, respectively. During the peak season (October through March), RVGE, non-RVGE, CAAP, and nonalveolar lower respiratory tract infection hospitalization rates decreased significantly by 86%, 44.6%, 23.3%, and 10.5%, respectively. In outpatients, the respective decreases were 81.7%, 73.5%, 13.8%, and 10.7%. The proportion of RVGE and CAAP (grouped) of all-cause hospitalizations and outpatient pediatric ED visits decreased from 19.9% to 12.3% and from 6.9% to 1.8%, respectively. Conclusions Rotavirus vaccine and PCV introduction cocontributed to a rapid, considerable reduction in hospital burden in children <2 years of age. Because seasonalities of both diseases overlap, this reduction is particularly helpful in relieving burdens of disease and care during the most cumbersome morbidity season.