- Analyses of the results of surgery for epilepsy are hindered by inconsistent classifications of seizure outcome, small numbers of patients, and short postoperative follow-up periods. The authors conducted a retrospective study with a reassessment of the long-term seizure outcomes in patients who underwent selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) for pharmacotherapy-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) at the Zurich University Hospital from 1975 to 1999. Year-by-year data and the last available data on seizure outcomes were retrospectively assessed for 369 consecutively surgically treated patients who had participated in a follow-up period longer than 1 year as of 1999 and whose outcomes were classified according to the Engel scale and the proposed new International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) scale. Patients were grouped into nonlesional and lesional MTLE groups depending on whether they harbored a gross anatomical lesion that caused the MTLE. Differentiation was made between curative and palliative operations. Complications related to surgery are reported for 453 patients who underwent SelAH and participated in more than 3 months of follow-up review. The last available outcome data according to the Engel scale were found to be generally similar to those of the new ILAE classification, with 66.9% of patients free from disabling seizures (Engel Class I) compared with 57.1% who were completely seizure and aura free (ILAE Class 1). The last available data on seizure outcome were not significantly different between patients in the lesional and nonlesional MTLE groups. In the lesional group, seizure outcomes were significantly better when patients underwent surgery early in the course of the disease. Overall, 70% of the patients received reductions in their antiepileptic drug treatment at the time of the last available follow-up review. Complications related to the surgical procedures were rare. The authors conclude that SelAH is a safe and effective surgical procedure for MTLE.