- Highly active antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved the quality of life and life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the prolonged use of HAART leads to severe metabolic adverse events. Both HIV infection and HAART can cause changes in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as elevation of blood pressure, promoting the development of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular diseases have become a major cause of mortality among HIV-infected subjects who respond well to antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, a proper lifestyle and pharmacologic intervention can improve cardiovascular risk factors in the HIV-treated population and significantly reduce healthcare investments in the treatment of future cardiovascular complications in this population. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of CVD prevention and treatment in HIV patients.