- Altered glucose homeostasis in the different diabetic states often results from a combination of insulin deficiency (absolute or relative), and impaired hormone action. The latter involves alterations in the expression and/or function of glucose transporters in insulin responsive peripheral tissues - skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Since whole body glucose utilization depends mainly on controlled changes in glucose transport in these tissues, this review focuses on the role of glucose transporters in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity. The molecular mechanisms by which several inducers of insulin resistance inhibit insulin action on glucose uptake are also discussed. Better understanding of the complex regulation of glucose transport and transporters will hopefully shed light on potential sites for new pharmaceutical interventions. Several excellent reviews have been published in the past 2 years detailing various aspects which are discussed only briefly in this review. They are mentioned in the text to allow further reading.