- OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of cesarean section (CS) in pregnant women with a diagnosis of thrombophilia and to identify risk factors for CS. The women were recognized by an ICD-9 code from a computerized database. Maternal records were reviewed between the years 2000 and 2005. Pregnancy characteristics of 86 women with thrombophilia were compared according to the mode of delivery: CS (n = 18) versus vaginal delivery (n = 68). The prevalence of CS in the study population was 21% (18/86). Women with CS had a lower gestational age at delivery (P = 0.019), lower birth weight (P = 0.048), higher incidence of the following: preterm delivery (P < 0.001), gestational hypertension (P = 0.028), intrauterine growth retardation/antepartum death/placental abruption (P = 0.065) and non-reassuring fetal heart rate (NRFHR) monitoring (P < 0.001) compared to those with vaginal delivery. In a multiple logistic regression analysis only NRFHR monitoring, birth weight and malpresentation remained statistically significant. CS in women with thrombophilia are associated with common obstetrical causes rather than specific thrombophilia dependent factors.