- Chromosome duplication—autopolyploidization—may affect plant morphology and breeding systems, ultimately enabling the production of improved genotypes. In this study, the autotetraploid lines obtained from the self-incompatible diploid Hylocereus monacanthus and the autooctapolyploid lines obtained from the self-compatible tetraploid H. megalanthus were studied and compared with the donor accessions. The resulting H. monacanthus autotetraploids exhibit lower fruit weight, seed number, and pollen viability than the donor plant, but it has larger pollen grains. Although the resulting H. megalanthus autooctaploids had larger pollen grains and lower pollen viability compared with the donor plant, only aborted fruits were obtained from these lines. The most valuable change observed was the breakdown of the self-incompatibility system in the H. monacanthus autotetraploid lines. This research provides important information on the horticultural value of vine cacti autopolyploid lines.