- The use of proton high-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows the rapid detection and quantitation of modification in the blood serum metabolic profiles in haematooncological patients. This study examines the feasibility of using proton MRS as a diagnostic tool in predicting the outcome of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at the earliest possible date. Proton spectra of serum samples from 18 BMT patients (11 autologous-BMT and seven allogeneic-BMT), six hematooncological patients that did not undergo BMT and six normal individuals were recorded at 400 MHz. A longitudinal MRS study was carried for these groups and the data were evaluated for statistical significance. It was determined that the MRS results, taken at different time points before and after the BMT treatment, are statistically significant. However, no significant difference was observed in the MRS parameters between the transplanted patients and the control patients. We could not obtain significant correlation between the MRS results and the immunoglobulin level, engraftment parameters or the age, sex, stage of basic disease, conditioning protocols, transplant type, post transplant complications (including death) and outcome.