- Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic protozoal disease, caused by an obligatory intracellular parasite of the genus Toxoplasma. The disease is widely distributed affecting more than a billion milliard people, worldwide. Raising sheep and cattle, handling and eating raw meat, interaction with domestic cats and climate conditions play an important role in the distribution of the disease. Both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium belong to the Phylum Apicomplexa, and are, therefore, almost similarly sensitive to anti-malarial drugs. Toxoplasmosis is considered to be viscerotropic in adults and children and neurotropic in fetal and newborn children. An accurate and fast diagnosis of the disease is highly important, particularly in pregnant women, since the results may affect both the mother and her fetus. The present study summarizes the old and new techniques available and their importance in the diagnosis of the disease.