- Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, occurring in 20%-40% of patients, mostly during the first week after surgery. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but data are limited. Objectives: To assess the correlation between new-onset in-hospital AF following CABG and long-term AF, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or death. Methods: We conducted an analysis of 161 consecutive patients who underwent isolated CABG surgery in a tertiary center during the period 2002-2003. Results: Patients' mean age was 72 years, and the majority were males (77%). Approximately half of the patients experienced prior myocardial infarction, and 14% had left ventricular ejection fraction < 40%. Postoperative AF (POAF) occurred in 27% of the patients. Patients were older and had larger left atrium diameter. POAF was strongly correlated with late AF (OR 4.34, 95%CI 1.44-13.1, P = 0.01) during a mean follow-up of 8.5 years. It was also correlated with long-term stroke but was not associated with long-term mortality. Conclusions: POAF is a common complication of CABG surgery, which is correlated with late AF and stroke. Patients with POAF should be closely monitored to facilitate early administration of anticoagulant therapy in a high risk population upon recurrence of AF.