- Objective: Multiple pregnancy is one of the major risk factors for preterm births. The aim of the present study was to compare perinatal outcome and peripartum complications between twins and singletons, born preterm. Study design: The study population consisted of preterm deliveries of 435 pairs of twins (870 neonates) and the comparison group included 4754 preterm deliveries of singletons, born in the same period (January 1, 1989–December 31, 1996). Exclusion criteria were lack of prenatal care and births following infertility treatments. The three steps in statistical analysis consisted of (1) degree of concordance between the twins; (2) comparison between each twin (I and II) to their singleton comparison groups using SPSS computer program; (3) stratified analysis to examine perinatal mortality rates at different gestational age groups. Results: The prevalence of preterm deliveries was 7.9% (6192/77 610). Perinatal mortality was lower in twins of both birth orders, however, it was statistically significant only when APD is considered. Mortality rates in all gestational age groups and for both twin groups were lower than that of singleton [OR=0.45 (0.26–0.75; 95% CI) for twin-I; OR=0.36 (0.21–0.59; 95% CI) for twin-II]. Compared to singletons, twin gestations had less congenital malformations. Twin gestation had statistically lower rates of preterm premature rupture of membranes, severe pregnancy induced hypertension, oligohydramnios, placenta previa, placental abruption and clinical chorioamnionitis [12.2 vs.17.3%, 2.5 vs. 6.3%, 2.3 vs. 4.7%, 0.9 vs. 2.9%, 1.8 vs. 5%, 1.8 vs. 5.2%, respectively (P<0.01)]. Mothers of twins had less diabetes mellitus class B-R, hydramnios and chronic hypertension than that of singleton (1.8 vs. 2.6%, 5.5 vs. 7.4%, 3.7 vs. 4.8%, respectively). Cesarean section rates were significantly higher in twin’s gestation. Mothers of twins tended to be older and of higher birth and gravidity order. Conclusions: Perinatal mortality rates and peripartum complications were lower in twin compared to singleton gestations.