- Infection of mice with lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) causes a lifelong chronic infection which is followed by alterations in immune responses during the acute phase of the infection. LDV was found to impair many functions of the reticuloendothelial system and to suppress macrophage-dependent immune responses. We tested the effect of acute infection with LDV in mice on the macrophage-mediated resistance to infection with a virulent bacterium. We found that LDV reduces the host's capacity to resist infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Many tumor lines which are transferred in mice are infected with LDV, and their growth rate is affected by the presence of the virus. It is therefore important to distinguish between immune alterations in tumor-bearing mice which are caused by the progressive growth of the tumor and those which are secondary to the viral infection. We tested whether LDV and a circulatory factor from tumor-bearing mice with similar suppressive effects on anti-Listeria immunity are two different entities or whether they are similar. We found that the factor is associated with LDV-infected tumor cells and is absent in LDV-free tumor cells. Other biological and physical characteristics supported the assumption that the tumor-associated factor is the LDV.