- : Objectives: Familial thrombocytopenia is a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of clinical and genetic syndromes of unknown etiology. Recently, mutations in a few hematopoietic transcription factors were implicated in dysmegakaryopoiesis with and without dyserythropoietic anemia. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical and hematologic picture of members of a Bedouin family with severe congenital thrombocytopenia associated with neutropenia and anemia and to determine the possible involvement of hematopoietic transcription factor genes in their disease. Patients and methods: Four members of a Bedouin family presented with severe bleeding tendency, including intracranial hemorrhage in three. Three of the four were successfully treated with allogenic human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched bone marrow transplants. Measurements of serum erythropoietin and thrombopoietin levels, bone marrow electron microscopy, and megakaryocytic colony were grown for each patient in addition to DNA amplification and single-strand conformation polymorphism of each exon of the NF-E2, Fli-1, FOG-1, and Gfi-1b in genes. Results: Bone marrow studies revealed dysmegakaryopoiesis and mild dyserythropoiesis. A low number of bone marrow megakaryocyte colony-forming units was found, as well as a slightly elevated serum thrombopoietin level. No mutation was identified in any of the transcription factor genes examined. Conclusions: A unique autosomal recessive bone marrow disorder with prominent involvement of megakaryocytes is described. Defects were not identified in transcription factors affecting the common myeloid progenitor.