- Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between anemia during pregnancy and subsequent future maternal cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing women with and without anemia during pregnancy. Deliveries occurred during 1988-1998 and had followed for more than a decade. Incidence of long-term cardiovascular morbidity was compared between the two groups. Results: During the study period, 47,657 deliveries met the inclusion criteria; of these 12,362 (25.9%) occurred in women with anemia at least once during their pregnancies. Anemia of pregnancy was noted as a risk factor for long-term complex cardiovascular events (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1-2.8, P=0.04). Using Cox multivariable regression model, controlling for ethnicity and maternal age, anemia was found to be an independent risk factor for long-term maternal cardiovascular hospitalization (OR for total hospitalizations=1.2, 95%CI 1.1-1.4, p<0.001). Conclusion: Anemia of pregnancy is an independent risk factor for long-term cardiovascular morbidity in a follow-up period of more than a decade.