- Problem: To determine whether amniotic fluid (AF) CXCL10 concentration is associated with histologic chronic chorioamnionitis in patients with preterm labor (PTL) and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (PROM). Method of study: This study included 168 women who had an episode of PTL or preterm PROM. AF interleukin (IL)-6 and CXCL10 concentrations were determined by immunoassay. Results: (i) Increased AF CXCL10 concentration was associated with chronic (OR: 4.8; 95% CI: 1.7-14), but not acute chorioamnionitis; (ii) increased AF IL-6 concentration was associated with acute (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.3-13.7) but not chronic chorioamnionitis; and (iii) an increase in AF CXCL10 concentration was associated with placental lesions consistent with maternal anti-fetal rejection (OR: 3.7; 95% CI: 1.3-10.4). (iv) All patients with elevated AF CXCL10 and IL-6 delivered preterm. Conclusion: Increased AF CXCL10 concentration is associated with chronic chorioamnionitis or maternal anti-fetal rejection, whereas increased AF IL-6 concentration is associated with acute histologic chorioamnionitis.