- Objectives/Background Current prenatal diagnostic abilities confront parents and health professionals with complicated issues regarding termination of pregnancy (TOP) due to fetal abnormalities. 1. To assess and compare attitudes of consumers (women) and providers (health professionals) of prenatal care regarding TOP due to fetal abnormality. 2. To identify factors related to these attitudes. Methods The study was conducted in southern Israel. Consumers (596) were interviewed by phone 5–8 weeks postpartum. Health professionals (351) filled out a self-administrated questionnaire. Results More than half of the interviewees approved of TOP due to mental retardation, death during infancy, severe physical disability and very low quality of life (in descending order). For each condition, care providers were significantly more supportive of TOP than women, and had far fewer hesitations. The hierarchy of ‘TOP acceptability’ was similar in both populations. Factors associated with women's attitudes were degree of religiosity, Ashkenazi origin and country of birth. Two approaches toward TOP were identified: ‘consistent’ versus ‘ad hoc’. Conclusions Prenatal care providers and consumers differ in their attitudes regarding acceptability of reasons for TOP. Care providers offering prenatal tests should be aware of their patients' attitudes, in order to guide informed decisions regarding the tests. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.