- The aim of this study was to describe antibiotic resistance rates of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Israel in order to facilitate the empirical choice of antibiotic treatment or prophylaxis for traveler's diarrhea and infantile diarrhea in our region. A total of 281 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates were tested: 144 from Bedouin infants and 137 from Israeli soldiers. Antibiotic-resistant isolates were prevalent in both groups, but higher resistance rates were found in the pediatric group. Strains producing heat-labile toxin showed higher resistance rates than strains producing heat-stable toxin. The results obtained in Israel preclude the use of many commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Quinolones, however, are still effective.