- Caspases play a critical role in regulation of apoptosis, cell differentiation, inflammation, and innate immunity, and several are mutated or have altered expression in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). To study the impact of genetic variation in caspases on NHL risk, we analyzed tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 caspase and related genes in 3 population-based case-control studies (1946 cases and 1808 controls). Gene-based analysis, adjusting for the number of tagSNPs genotyped in each gene, showed significant associations for CASP8, CASP9, and CASP1. SNP-based analysis showed that CASP8 rs6736233 (odds ratio (OR) CG = 1.21; ORCC = 2.13; P trend = .011); CASP9 rs4661636 (ORCT = 0.89; ORTT = 0.77; P trend = .011); and CASP1 rs1785882 (ORAT = 1.12; ORAA = 1.30; P trend = .0054) were significantly associated with NHL risk and consistent across studies. It is noteworthy that genetic variants in CASP8 were associated with risk of all major NHL subtypes. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in caspases may play an important role in lymphomagenesis.