- Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a significant complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and may have a deleterious impact on the overall outcome after transplantation. In addition to the direct effects of CMV infection, tissue-invasive CMV diseases may be associated with increased risk of graft-versus-host disease, myelosuppression, and invasive bacterial and fungal infections. Because of these direct and indirect adverse effects, prevention of CMV infection, mostly through pre-emptive therapy, is one of the essential strategies that may improve outcomes of HSCT recipients. Management of CMV infection relies mainly on intravenous (IV) antiviral therapy with ganciclovir and foscarnet, with or without IV polyclonal immunoglobulins. Although viral resistance remains rare, better tolerated antiviral agents with less serious side effects are needed, and a few will be evaluated in phase III clinical trials in the near future.