Immunolocalization of the toxin latrunculin B within the Red Sea sponge Negombata magnifica (Demospongiae, Latrunculiidae) Academic Article uri icon


  • The location of latrunculin B, the major toxin of the Red Sea sponge Negombata magnifica, was revealed using specific antibodies. Antibodies from rabbits immunized with a conjugate of latrunculin B with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) were purified over a latrunculin B–Sepharose affinity column. Analysis of immunohistochemical and immunogold-stained sponge sections, using light and transmission electron microscopy, revealed latrunculin B labeling mostly beneath the sponge cortex at the border between the external (ectosome) and internal (endosome) layers (ectosome-endosome border). The endosome was less labeled than the border. Immunogold localization revealed latrunculin B in the sponge cells but not in its prokaryotic symbionts. Archeocytes and choanocytes were significantly more labeled than other cells. The antibodies primarily labeled membrane-limited vacuoles within archeocytes and choanocytes that are perhaps latrunculin B secretory or storage vesicles. Peripheral latrunculin B may have a role in defense against external epibionts, predators, and competitors.

publication date

  • January 1, 2000