- Invasive fungal sinusitis is becoming increasingly common in patients undergoing BMT. This study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence, presenting symptoms, diagnosis procedures, treatment and outcome of invasive fungal sinusitis. The study population comprised 423 consecutive BMT patients at Hadassah University Hospital from January 1986 to August 1992. Eleven patients (2.6%) developed invasive fungal sinusitis, 8 had underlying hematologic malignancies and 3 severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Median interval between BMT and fungal sinusitis was 22.5 days (range 2-106 days). Eight of 11 patients had protracted neutropenia (median 8 days with median neutrophil count at the time of fungal sinusitis diagnosis of 0.25 x 10(9)/l). Four patients developed GVHD before fungal sinusitis was diagnosed. Presenting symptoms were fever (100%), orbital swelling (63%), facial pain (54%) and nasal congestion (36%). In 8 patients Aspergillus species were isolated (A. flavus in 7, A. quadrilineatus in 1); in 1 patient Candida albicans was isolated and in the other 2 fungal elements were detected histologically (Fusarium and Mucor, respectively). Six of the patients underwent surgical debridement at diagnosis. Three received granulocyte transfusions. All patients received systemic amphotericin B (7 conventional and 4 amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD)). Only 2 of the 11 patients responded completely to therapy with a follow-up of 15 months. It appears that invasive fungal sinusitis is a potentially fatal complication in immunocompromised patients post-BMT. Current treatment approaches are largely ineffective and new methods of management of this serious problem are needed.