- In our study, we assessed the ability of a filling cystogram to induce vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and to evaluate its role in stone targeting during ESWL in the presence of a double-J ureteral stent (JJ-S). Filling cystoureterography was performed during ESWL in 17 patients with previously inserted 4.7 F JJ-S. The examination ended with stone localization. In every procedure, 3,500 shock waves were delivered with an energy range of 18–23 kV. Patients were evaluated 4 weeks after ESWL. A stone-free result was defined as no evidence of calculi in the first or second visits. Because contrast material was employed in this study, we also evaluated its possible interference with the results of lithotripsy. All radiolucent or poorly calcified stones were successfully localized. In four patients, rhythmic suprapubic manual pressure was performed to initiate VUR. Reflux was low grade in 35% and high grade in 65% of renal units. The efficiency quotient reached 59%. In vitro artificial stones were successfully disintegrated both in water and solutions of Ultravist. In the presence of a JJ-S, filling cystography can easily localize radiolucent stones during SWL. No special catheters or stents are required for this technique. Ultravist in particular does not affect the results of ESWL unfavorably.