Evidence for the participation of interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase 1) in preterm premature rupture of membranes. Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • Objective: Rupture of membranes is thought to result from the effects of physical forces in localized areas of the membranes weakened by the degradation of structural collagens. Matrix metalloproteinases are enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix components and have been implicated in membrane rupture. The objective of this study was to determine whether spontaneous rupture of membranes is associated with a change in the amniotic fluid concentration of interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase 1 [MMP-1]), a major collagenase. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine MMP-1 concentrations in amniotic fluid from 353 women in the following categories: (1) term with intact membranes not in labor and in labor, (2) preterm labor who delivered at term, (3) preterm labor who delivered preterm without microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, (4) preterm labor who delivered preterm with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, (5) preterm premature rupture of membranes with and without microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, (6) term premature rupture of membranes not in labor and in labor, and (7) mid trimester of pregnancy. Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity was determined by an amniotic fluid culture positive for microorganisms. MMP-1 concentrations in amniotic fluid were determined by means of sensitive and specific immunoassays. Results: (1) MMP-1 was detectable in 81.3% of amniotic fluid samples (287/353), and its concentrations increased with advancing gestational age (r = 0.4; P < .001). (2) Preterm premature rupture of membranes was associated with a significant increase in the median amniotic fluid concentration of MMP-1 (P = .02). (3) Women with term premature rupture of membranes had a significantly lower amniotic fluid MMP-1 concentration than those with intact membranes at term not in labor (P < .001). (4) Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in patients in preterm labor with intact membranes and in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes was also associated with significant increases in the median amniotic fluid MMP-1 concentrations (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). (5) Patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes and microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity had a significantly higher median amniotic fluid MMP-1 concentration than those with intact membranes and microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (P = .01). (6) Neither term nor preterm parturition was associated with changes in amniotic fluid MMP-1 concentrations (P = .6 and P = .3, respectively). Conclusion: (1) Collagenase 1 (MMP-1) is a physiologic constituent of amniotic fluid. (2) Preterm premature rupture of membranes (in both the presence and absence of infection) was associated with an increase in the amniotic fluid MMP-1 concentrations. (3) Neither term nor preterm parturition was associated with a significant increase in the amniotic fluid concentration of MMP-1. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:914-20.)

publication date

  • January 1, 2000