- We describe the fabrication of polymer nanofibers with entrapped molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles and study their possible use in a fluorescence-based biosensor application. The MIP was imprinted with the fluorescent amino acid derivative dansyl-l-phenylalanine. Poly(vinyl alcohol) was used as a support for MIP nanoparticles because it is water-soluble and can be spun into very thin fibers. The fibers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy was used for the characterization of target binding to the MIP. The fibers show close to 100% recovery upon extraction and rebinding of the target molecule. The selectivity of the system has been demonstrated through competitive binding experiments with nonfluorescent analogues boc-l-phenylalanine and boc-d-phenylalanine.