- Adipose tissue has now emerged as a powerful endocrine organ via the production of adipokines. Visfatin, a novel adipokine with diabetogenic and immuno-modulatory properties has been implicated in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in patients with obesity and Type-2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are changes in the maternal plasma concentration of visfatin with advancing gestation and as a function of maternal weight. In this cross-sectional study, maternal plasma concentrations of visfatin were determined in normal weight and overweight/obese pregnant women in the following gestational age groups: 1) 11-14 weeks (n=52); 2) 19-26 weeks (n=68); 3) 27-34 weeks (n=93); and 4) >37 weeks (n=60). Visfatin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non parametric statistics were used for analysis. 1) The median maternal plasma visfatin concentration was higher in pregnant women between 19-26 weeks of gestation than that of those between 11-14 weeks of gestation (P<0.01) and those between 27-34 weeks of gestation (P<0.01); 2) among normal weight pregnant women, the median plasma visfatin concentrations of women between 19-26 weeks of gestation was higher than that of those between 11-14 weeks (P<0.01) and those between 27-34 weeks (P<0.01); and 3) among overweight/obese patients, the median maternal visfatin concentration was similar between the different gestational age groups. The median maternal plasma concentration of visfatin peaks between 19-26 and has a nadir between 27-34 weeks of gestation. Normal and overweight/obese pregnant women differed in the pattern of changes in circulating visfatin concentrations as a function of gestational age.