- Abstract: Childhood cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rapidly progressive demyelinating condition affecting the cerebral white matter, which rapidly leads to total disability and death. The only known curative treatment for this condition is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Procedure-related toxicity is assumed to be the cause of death of patients with X-ALD. Three cases of ALD successfully transplanted with the use of non-myeloablative fludarabine based conditioning are described. Patients showed smooth peri-bone marrow transplantation course with fast and stable engraftment. In the 3- to 5 yr follow-up period, patients showed no deterioration in their clinical and neurological condition. Levels of very long chain fatty acids were very variable and had a tendency to decrease in at least one of the three patients. In another patient, an improvement of magnetic resonance imaging changes was found. Non-myeloablative HSCT should be considered as an early treatment for X-ALD.