- Biotechnical and biomedical approaches were combined in an attempt to identify potential uses of biofabricated marine carbonate materials in biomedical applications, particularly as biomatrices for remodeling bone and cartilage tissue. After grafting, it is desirable for bone ingrowth to proceed as quickly as possible because the strength of the implanted region depends on a good mechanical bond forming between the implant and surrounding regions in the body. Ingrowth can take place as a result of growth of tissue and cells into the implanted porous material, or it may be promoted by transplanting cells seeded onto such a material. The rate at which ingrowth occurs is dependent on many factors, including pore size and the interconnectivity of the implanted structure. In vivo graftings into osteochondral defects demonstrated that our biofabricated porous material is highly biocompatible with cartilage and bone tissue. The biofabricated matrix was well incorporated into the biphasic osteochondral area. Resorption was followed by bone and cartilage formation, and after 4 months, the biomaterial had been replaced by new tissue. Ossification was induced and enhanced without introduction of additional factors. We believe that this is the first time that such biofabricated materials have been used for biomedical purposes. In face of the obvious environmental disadvantages of harvesting from limited natural resources, we propose the use of bioengineered coralline and other materials such as those cultured by our group under field and laboratory conditions as a possible biomatrix for hard tissue remodeling.