- This study compared the efficacy of Adeli suit treatment (AST) with neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-four children with CP, Levels II to IV according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), were matched by age and functional status and randomly assigned to the AST or NDT treatment groups. In the AST group (n=12; eight males, four females; mean age 8.3 y [SD 2.0]), six children had spastic/ataxic diplegia, one triplegia and five spastic/mixed quadriplegia. In the NDT group (n=12; nine males, three females; mean age 8.1 y [SD 2.2]), five children had spastic diplegia and seven had spastic/mixed quadriplegia. Both groups were treated for 4 weeks (2 hours daily, 5 days per week, 20 sessions). To compare treatments, the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) and the mechanical efficiency index (EIHB) during stair-climbing were measured at baseline, immediately after 1 month of treatment, and 10 months after baseline. The small but significant time effects for GMFM-66 and EIHB that were noted after 1 month of both intensive physiotherapy courses were greater than expected from natural maturation of children with CP at this age. Improvements in motor skills and their retention 9 months after treatment were not significantly different between the two treatment modes. Post hoc analysis indicated a greater increase in EIHB after 1 month (p=0.16) and 10 months (p=0.004) in AST than that in NDT, predominantly in the children with higher motor function (GMFCS Levels II and III). The results suggest that AST might improve mechanical efficiency without a corresponding gain in gross motor skills, especially in children with higher levels of motor function.