- Cationic non-viral DNA vectors are very successful in in vitro transfections but less efficient in in vivo tests. This seems mainly due to the cationic nature of the molecules used to complex DNA. In this article, we describe the design and the route towards the realization of a non-viral non-cationic vector. The strategy follows three steps: first, the incorporation of DNA to a lamellar phase; second, the making of multilamellar vesicles containing a high loading of DNA by shearing the lamellar phase and, finally, the grafting of peptides onto the surface of the vesicles to target a specific receptor on the cells. Throughout this process, we had to overcome many obstacles; this review describes the present state of our work and summarizes the remaining steps.