- Unlabelled: Background: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common age-dependent urological condition that can adversely affect quality of life if the patient's treatment choice is inap- propriate. Objectives: To examine whether patients' demography and personality affect their decision regarding the type of treatment: namely, conservative or surgical. Methods: A total of 105 BPH patients treated during the period 2005-2008 were retrospectively categorized into three groups according to treatment received: (i) medication only (n = 056), (ii) combined treatment (the initial medication treatment was switched to surgical treatment) (n = 32), and (iii) surgery only (n = 17). A prerequisite for inclusion in the study was use of BPH medication for at least half a year before the study (groups 1 and 2). These groups completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire at the start of BPH medical treatment (IPSS 1) and at the start of the trial (IPSS 2), and the staff calculated the difference (IPSS 1-IPSS 2 = Delta IPSS = DIPSS). All three groups provided demographic data (age, country of origin, education) and completed tri-dimensional personality questionnaires (TPQ) to measure three independent "temperament" personality dimensions to evaluate how different individuals feel or behave: novel seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD). Data were analyzed using chi-square, t-test, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Results: The choice of BPH treatment differed according to demographic variables and the RD dimension. Conclusions: Our study suggests that symptomatic BPH treatment is influenced less by the patient's personality and more by his life circumstances. Israeli-born patients were more conservative, Russian-born patients were ambivalent, and other foreign-born patients predominantly preferred surgical treatment. We assume that personality has a more decisive effect on patients with malignant disease and they accept the medical advice more easily.