- Cardiac tissue reconstruction following myocardial infarction represents a major challenge in cardiovascular therapy, as current clinical approaches are limited in their ability to regenerate or replace damaged myocardium. Thus, different novel treatments have been introduced aimed at myocardial salvage and repair. Here, we present a review of recent advancements in cardiac cell, gene-based and tissue engineering therapies. Selected strategies in cell therapy and new tools for myocardial gene transfer are summarized. Finally, we consider novel approaches to myocardial tissue engineering as a platform for the integration of various modalities in an attempt to rejuvenate infarcted tissue in vivo.