- Background: If untreated, one third of patients who undergo surgery develop postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV). The prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting can improve satisfaction among vulnerable patients. We hypothesized that preoperative anxiety may increase the incidence of PONV. The objective was to assess whether administration of a benzodiazepine prior to surgery would reduce the incidence of PONV. Methods: 130 women (ASA I and II) scheduled to undergo dilatation and curettage comprised the study group. The women were allocated randomly to two study groups according to the type of anesthesia administered (with and without midazolam). Results: Sixty-eight women received midazolam and 62 did not. Patients treated with midazolam were feeling more comfortable (“friendliness”, p = 0.005 and “elation”, p = 0.01) and had less postoperative fatigue (p = 0.04) than non-midazolam-treated group. Patients treated with midazolam had significantly fewer emetic episodes during the first 4 hours after surgery than those without midazolam (0.1 ± 0.2 vs 0.3 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Midazolam reduces the incidence of PONV and improves patient’s comfort. We suggest that midazolam has to be routinely included in the anesthesia protocol for short-term gynecological procedures (dilatation and curettage).